Assessment of effect of fluoride pollution on germination rate, vigor index and fluoride contents in some selected varieties of wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.)

Khaliq Dad, Fenliang Zhao, Fenliang Zhao, Sumiyya Iftikhar, Manal Nadeem Khan, Fatima Ali, Iqra Fatima, Momal Nawab, Rania Mazhar Khan, Khansa Majid, Khola Bilal, Muhammad Nawaz


Wheat being staple food and a source of economy in Pakistan is cultivated on large scale every year. Due to increasing environmental pollution, this crop is being affected directly or indirectly.  Fluoride is one of the most toxic pollutants among rest of the environmental pollutants. A pot experiment was conducted to examine the impacts of fluoride toxicity on the seed germination, seedlings growth and F ion accumulation in locally cultivated varieties of wheat crop. In this regards, 5 wheat varieties (Akbar 2019, Anaj 2017, Ujala 2016, Galaxy 2016 and AARI 2011) were sown in green house at Bahauddin Zakaryia University (BZU), Multan, Pakistan by applying five (3 mM, 5mM, 7mM, 9mM and 11mM) treatments of NaF and control (0mM). Germination percentage, vigor index and F accumulation in roots and shoots were considered as parameters of research. Anaj 2017 and Akbar 2019 were exhibiting the highest germination percentage at 3mM (87% and 75%) while at 11 mM only Akbar 2019 showed 13% of germination rate as compared to that of control and rest of varieties. Vigor index was also found maximum 193.3 at 11mM of NaF in Anaj 2017. The fluoride contents were recorded higher in roots as compared to that of shoots in all varieties of wheat i.e. at 11 mM, 1 ug of F was found in AARI 2011 which was observed higher as compared to that of control as well as rest of varieties.


Wheat, NaF, germination rate, vigor index, F contents, roots, shoots

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Print ISSN: 2522-6746 : Online ISSN: 2522-6754

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