Effect of gamma irradiation and subsequent cold storage on the development and predatory potential of seven spotted ladybird beetle Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus (Coleoptera; Coccinellidae) larvae

Anees Hayat, Asia Riaz, Nazia Suleman


Seven spot ladybird beetle, (Coccinella septempunctata) is a widely distributed natural enemy of soft-bodied insect pests especially aphids worldwide. Both the adult and larvae of this coccinellid beetle are voracious feeders and serve as a commercially available biological control agent around the globe. Different techniques are adopted to enhance the mass rearing and storage of this natural enemy by taking advantage of its natural ability to withstand under extremely low temperatures and entering diapause under unfavorable low temperature conditions. The key objective of this study was to develop a cost effective technique for enhancing the storage life and predatory potential of the larvae of C. septempunctata through cold storage in conjunction with the use of nuclear techniques, gamma radiations. Results showed that the host eating potential of larvae was enhanced as the cold storage duration was increased. Gamma irradiation further enhanced the feeding potential of larvae that were kept under cold storage. Different irradiation doses also affected the development time of C. septempuntata larvae significantly. Without cold storage, the lower radiation doses (10 and 25 GY) prolonged the developmental time as compared to un-irradiated larvae. Furthermore, the higher dose of radiation (50GY) increased the developmental time after removal from cold storage. This study first time paves the way to use radiation in conjunction with cold storage as an effective technique in implementation of different biological control approaches as a part of any IPM programs


Gamma irradiations; cold storage, Coccinella septempunctata larvae; predatory potential; integrated pest management programme

Full Text:



Abdel‐Salam, A. and N. J. J. o. A. E. Abdel‐Baky, 2000. Possible storage of Coccinella undecimpunctata (Col., coccinellidae) under low temperature and its effect on some biological characteristics. 124(3‐4): 169-176.

Afroz, S., 2001. Relative abundance of aphids and their coccinellid predators. Journal of aphidology, 15: 113-118.

Bale, J., 2002. Insects and low temperatures: From molecular biology to distributions and abundance. Biological sciences, 357(1423): 849-862.

Berkvens, N., J. S. Bale, D. Berkvens, L. Tirry and P. De Clercq, 2010. Cold tolerance of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis in europe. Journal of insect physiology, 56(4): 438-444.

Bilashini, Y. and T. J. I. J. A. E. Singh, 2009. Studies on population dynamics and feeding potential of Coccinella septempunctata linnaeus in relation to Lipaphis erysimi (kaltenbach) on cabbage. Indian journal of applied entomology, 23: 99-103.

Bueno, V. H. P., L. M. Carvalho and J. Van Lenteren, 2014. Performance of Orius insidiosus after storage, exposure to dispersal material, handling and shipment processes. Bulletin of insectology, 67(2): 175-183.

Cai, P., X. Gu, M. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Huang, A. Idress, Q. Ji, J. Chen and J. Yang, 2017. The optimal age and radiation dose for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs as hosts for mass-reared Fopius arisanus (Sonan)(Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Biological control, 108: 89-97.

Celmer-Warda, K., 2004. Preliminary studies suitability and acceptability of irradiated host larvae Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) on larval parasitoids Venturia canescens (gravenhorst). Annals of warsaw agricultural university, horticulture (Landscape Architecture), 25: 67-73.

Chapman, R. F., 1998. The insects: Structure and function. Cambridge university press.

Chen, Q., L.-f. Xiao, G.-r. Zhu, Y.-s. LIU, Y.-j. ZHANG, Q.-j. WU and B.-y. XU, 2004. Effect of cold storage on the quality of Encarsia formosa Gahan. Chinese journal of biological control, 20(2): 107-109.

Danks, H., 2006. Insect adaptations to cold and changing environments. The Canadian entomologist, 138(1): 1-23.

Fatima, B., N. Ahmad, R. M. Memon, M. Bux and Q. Ahmad, 2009. Enhancing biological control of sugarcane shoot borer, Chilo infuscatellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), through use of radiation to improve laboratory rearing and field augmentation of egg and larval parasitoids. Biocontrol science technology, 19(sup1): 277-290.

Gagné, I. and D. Coderre, 2001. Cold storage of Coleomegilla maculata larvae. Biocontrol science technology, 11(3): 361-369.

Genchev, N., N. Balevski, D. Obretenchev and A. Obretencheva, 2008. Stimulation effects of low gamma radiation doses on perasitoids Habrobracon hebetor and Ventruria canescens. Journal of Balkan ecology, 11: 99-102.

Greany, P. D. and J. E. Carpenter, 2000. Årea-ide control of fruit flies and other insect pests: Importance. Joint proceedings of the International Conference on Årea-Wide Control of insect pests, May 28–June 2, 1998 and the Fifth International symposium on fruit flies of economi, June 1-5.

Hamalainen, M. and M. Markkula, 1977. Cool storage of Coccinella septempunctata and Adalia bipunctata (Col.,

coccinellidae) eggs for use in the biological control in greenhouses. Annales agricultural fennicae, 16: 132-136.

Hamed, M., S. Nadeem and A. Riaz, 2009. Use of gamma radiation for improving the mass production of Trichogramma chilonis and Chrysoperla carnea. Biocontrol science technology, 19(sup1): 43-48.

Hendrichs, J., K. Bloem, G. Hoch, J. E. Carpenter, P. Greany and A. S. Robinson, 2009. Improving the cost-effectiveness, trade and safety of biological control for agricultural insect pests using nuclear techniques. Biocontrol science technology, 19(sup1): 3-22.

Jalali, S. and S. Singh, 1992. Differential response of four Trichogramma species to low temperatures for short term storage. Entomophaga, 37(1): 159-165.

Jandial, V. K. and K. Malik, 2006. Feeding potential of Coccinella septempunctata Linn. (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) on mustard aphid, lipaphis erysimi kalt. And potato peach aphid, Myzus persicae sulzer. Journal of entomological research, 30(4): 291-293.

Jordão-paranhos, B. A., J. M. Walder and N. T. Papadopoulos, 2003. A simple method to study parasitism and field biology of the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Biocontrol science technology, 13(6): 631-639.

Koch, R. L., M. Carrillo, R. Venette, C. Cannon and W. D. Hutchison, 2004. Cold hardiness of the multicolored asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Environmental entomology, 33(4): 815-822.

Labrie, G., D. Coderre and E. Lucas, 2008. Overwintering strategy of multicolored asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Cold-free space as a factor of invasive success. Annals of the entomological society of America, 101(5): 860-866.

Leopold, R. and W.-l. Chen, 2007. Cold storage of the adult stage of Gonatocerus ashmeadi girault: The impact on maternal and progeny quality. In: Proceedings of the 2007 pierce’s disease research symposium, San Diego, CA. pp: 42-46.

Matveev, E., J. Kwon, G. Judd and M. J. T. C. E. Evenden, 2017. The effect of cold storage of mass-reared codling moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on subsequent flight capacity. The Canadian entomologist, 149(3): 391-398.

Mousapour, Z., A. Askarianzadeh and H. Abbasipour, 2014. Effect of cold storage of pupae parasitoid wasp, Habrobracon hebetor (say)(Hymenoptera: Braconidae), on its efficiency. Archives of phytopathology plant protection, 47(8): 966-972.

Novotny, J., M. Zúbrik, M. L. McManus and A. M. Liebhold, 2003. Sterile insect technique as a tool for increasing the efficacy of gypsy moth biocontrol. Proceedings: Ecology, survey and management of forest insects GTR-NE-311, 311.

Pervez, A. and Omkar, 2006. Ecology and biological control application of multicoloured asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis: A review. Biocontrol science technology, 16(2): 111-128.

Ramløy, U.-B., 2000. Aspects of natural cold tolerance in ectothermic animals. Human reproduction, 15(suppl_5): 26-46.

Ruan, C.-C., W.-M. Du, X.-M. Wang, J.-J. Zhang and L.-S. Zang, 2012. Effect of long-term cold storage on the fitness of pre-wintering Harmonia axyridis (pallas). BioControl, 57(1): 95-102.

Salem, H., M. Fouda, A. Abas, W. Ali and A. Gabarty, 2014. Effects

of gamma irradiation on the development and reproduction of the greasy cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.). Journal of radiation research applied sciences, 7(1): 110-115.

Seth, R. K., T. K. Barik and S. Chauhan, 2009. Interaction of entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema glaseri (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), cultured in irradiated hosts, with ‘f1 sterility’: Towards management of a tropical pest, Spodoptera litura (fabr.)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Biocontrol science technology, 19(sup1): 139-155.

Sohail, M., S. S. Khan, R. Muhammad, Q. A. Soomro, M. U. Asif and B. K. Solangi, 2019. Impact of insect growth regulators on biology and behavior of Chrysoperla carnea (stephens)(Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Ecotoxicology, 28(9): 1115-1125.

Suleman, N., 2015. Heterodynamic processes in Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera): A mini review. Entomological science, 18(2): 141-146.

Suleman, N., M. Hamed and A. Riaz, 2017. Feeding potential of the predatory ladybird beetle Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera; Coccinellidae) as affected by the hunger levels on natural host species. Journal of phytopathology pest management, 4: 38-47.

Tezze, A. A. and E. N. Botto, 2004. Effect of cold storage on the quality of Trichogramma nerudai (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Biological control, 30(1): 11-16.

Tunçbilek, A. S., U. Canpolat and F. Sumer, 2009. Suitability of irradiated and cold-stored eggs of Ephestia kuehniella (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) and Sitotroga cerealella (Gelechidae: Lepidoptera) for stockpiling the egg-parasitoid Trichogramma evanescens (Trichogrammatidae: Hymenoptera) in diapause. Biocontrol science technology, 19(sup1): 127-138.

Van Lenteren, J. C., 2012. The state of commercial augmentative biological control: Plenty of natural enemies, but a frustrating lack of uptake. BioControl, 57(1): 1-20.

Venkatesan, T., S. Singh and S. Jalali, 2000. Effect of cold storage on cocoons of Goniozus nephantidis muesebeck (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) stored for varying periods at different temperature regimes. Journal of entomological research, 24(1): 43-47.

Wang, E., D. Lu, X. Liu and Y. Li, 2009. Evaluating the use of nuclear techniques for colonization and production of Trichogramma chilonis in combination with releasing irradiated moths for control of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Biocontrol science technology, 19(sup1): 235-242.

Watanabe, M., 2002. Cold tolerance and myo-inositol accumulation in overwintering adults of a lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). European journal of entomology, 99(1): 5-10.

Xia, J., J. Wang, J. Cui, P. Leffelaar, R. Rabbinge and W. Van Der Werf, 2018. Development of a stage-structured process-based predator–prey model to analyse biological control of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, by the sevenspot ladybeetle, Coccinella septempunctata, in cotton. Ecological complexity, 33: 11-30.

Zapater, M. C., C. E. Andiarena, G. P. Camargo and N. Bartoloni, 2009. Use of irradiated musca domestica pupae to optimize mass rearing and commercial shipment of the parasitoid spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Biocontrol science technology, 19(sup1): 261-270.

Abstract Views or PDF Downloads

visitor counter

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33865/wjb.005.02.0297


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Anees Hayat, Asia Riaz, Nazia Suleman

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Print ISSN: 2522-6746 : Online ISSN: 2522-6754
1. How to register 
2. How to reset password
2. How to prepare a manuscript before submission 
3. How to submit a paper 
4. How to check the review status of a paper
5. How to check the plagirisim or similarity report