Antimicrobial potential of eucalyptus oil and lemongrass oil alone and in combination against clinical bacteria in planktonic and biofilm mode

Iram Liaqat, Amna Asgar


The use of natural substances has been trending from past few years. In recent years, the synthetic products obtained from plants have gained immense importance. Essential oils and volatile products obtained from plants are the source of food flavoring, aroma products and fragrance industries. Their use is also common to cure different ailments such as cancer, skin problems and nosocomial infections. Vast research has shown the antimicrobial properties of essential oils obtained from plants. Essential oils of lemongrass and eucalyptus have antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant and insecticidal characteristics. Lemongrass and eucalyptus oils shows their antibacterial activity towards Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. Combination of these oils also depicts high antimicrobial activity against different strains of bacteria. This review highlights the use of essential oils of lemongrass and eucalyptus for their in vitro antimicrobial properties against different bacteria in planktonic and biofilm mode. Mode of action by which the oil shows its inhibitory activity will be discussed. Susceptibility shown by different bacteria towards these essential oils and their components will be described


Antimicrobial activity; Antibiofilm activity; Eucalyptus oil; Lemongrass oil; Mode of action

Full Text:



Abubakar, E.-M. S., 2010. Antibacterial potential of crude leaf extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis against some pathogenic bacteria. African journal of plant science 4(6): 202-209.

Adnan, M.. P., 2019. Bioactive potential of essential oil extracted from the leaves of eucalyptus globulus (myrtaceae). Phytochemistry. 8(1): 213-216.

Aiemsaard, J., S. Aiumlamai, C. Aromdee, S. Taweechaisupapong and W. J. R. i. v. s. Khunkitti, 2011. The effect of lemongrass oil and its major components on clinical isolate mastitis pathogens and their mechanisms of action on staphylococcus aureus dmst 4745. Research in veterinary science 91(3): e31-e37.

Akhila, A., 2009. Essential oil-bearing grasses: The genus cymbopogon. CRC press.

Akin-Osanaiye, B., A. Agbaji and M. J. J. o. M. S. Dakare, 2007. Antimicrobial activity of oils and extracts of cymbopogon citratus(lemon grass), eucalyptus citriodora and eucalyptus camaldulensis. Journal of medical sciences 7(4): 777-780.

Akin, M., A. Aktumsek and A. J. Nostro, 2010. Antibacterial activity and composition of the essential oils of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. And Myrtus communis L. Growing in northern cyprus. African journal of biotechnology 9(4): 11-15

Al-Qaysi, K., M. T. Al-Ouqaili and S. R. Al-Meani, 2020. Ciprofloxacin-and gentamicin-mediated inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms is enhanced when combined the volatile oil from eucalyptus camaldulensis. Systematic reviews in pharmacy 11(7): 98-105.

Alma, M. H., S. Nitz, H. Kollmannsberger, M. Digrak, F. T. Efe, N. J. Yilmaz. 2004. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from the gum of turkish pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 52(12): 3911-3914.

Babayi, H., I. Kolo, J. Okogun and U. Ijah, 2004. The antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of eucalyptus camaldulensis and terminalia catappa against some pathogenic microorganisms.

Bachir, R. G. and M. J. A. P. j. o. t. b. Benali, 2012. Antibacterial activity of the essential oils from the leaves of eucalyptus globulus against escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus. 2(9): 739-742.

Bahjat, S. A. J. R. S., 2019. Evaluation of antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of cinnamon, clove, eucalyptus, and tea tree oils against oral streptococci. 28(3): 1-14.

Boyanova, L., G. Gergova, R. Nikolov, S. Derejian, E. Lazarova, N. Katsarov, I. Mitov and Z. J. m. Krastev, 2005. Activity of bulgarian propolis against 94 helicobacter pylori strains in vitro by agar-well diffusion, agar dilution and disc diffusion methods. 54(5): 481-483.

Brooker, I. and D. Kleinig, 2004. Field guide to eucalypts: Northern australia: Volume three. Bloomings Books.

Burt, S. J., 2004. Essential oils: Their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review. 94(3): 223-253.

Chaves, T. P., F. H. A. Fernandes, C. P. Santana, J. S. Santos, F. D. Medeiros, D. C. Felismino, V. L. Santos, R. M. R. Catão, H. D. M. Coutinho and A. C. Medeiros, 2016. Evaluation of the interaction between the Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul.) lp queiroz extract and antimicrobials using biological and analytical models. 11(5): e0155532.

Cimanga, K., K. Kambu, L. Tona, S. Apers, T. De Bruyne, N. Hermans, J. Totté, L. Pieters and A. J. Vlietinck, 2002. Correlation between chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of some aromatic medicinal plants growing in the democratic republic of congo. 79(2): 213-220.

Cristo, J. S., E. F. Matias, F. G. Figueredo, J. F. Santos, N. L. Pereira, J. G. Junior, P. E. Aquino, M. N. Nogueira, J. Ribeiro-Filho, F. A. J. I. Cunha and products, 2016. Hplc profile and antibiotic-modifying activity of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, (meliaceae). 94: 903-908.

Dabur, R., A. Gupta, T. Mandal, D. D. Singh, V. Bajpai, A. Gurav, G. J.T. Lavekar, Complementary and A. Medicines, 2007.

Antimicrobial activity of some indian medicinal plants. 4(3):


Damjanović-Vratnica, B., T. Đakov, D. Šuković and J. S. Damjanović, 2011. Antimicrobial effect of essential oil isolated from eucalyptus globulus labill. From montenegro. 29(3): 277-284.

Ghalem, B. R., B. Mohamed and pharmacology, 2008. Antibacterial activity of leaf essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus and eucalyptus camaldulensis. 2(10): 211-215.

Goldbeck, J. C., J. E. Do Nascimento, R. G. Jacob, Â. M. Fiorentini, W.C. Da Silva and Products, 2014. Bioactivity of essential oils from eucalyptus globulus and eucalyptus urograndis against planktonic cells and biofilms of streptococcus mutans. 60: 304-309.

Ishnava, K. B., J. B. Chauhan and M. B. J. S. j. o. b. s. Barad, 2013. Anticariogenic and phytochemical evaluation of eucalyptus globules labill. 20(1): 69-74.

Jafari, B., A. Ebadi, B. M. Aghdam, Z. J. A.-E. J. A. Hassanzade and E. Sci, 2012. Antibacterial activities of lemon grass methanol extract and essence on pathogenic bacteria. 2: 1042-1046.

Kakarla, S. and D. J. M. A. P. S. B. Ganjewala, 2009. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of four lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus steud) varieties. 3(1): 107-109.

Kavanaugh, N. L., K. A. Ribbeck and e. microbiology, 2012. Selected antimicrobial essential oils eradicate Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. 78(11): 4057-4061.

Khalaf, Z. Z. and L. A.. Zahra, 2020. Evaluation of the activity of essential oil and hydrosol from eucalyptus camaldulensis against some bacterial species. 1282-1288.

Khubeiz, M. J., G. Mansour, R. Zahraa and Research, 2016. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of leaves eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oils from four Syrian samples. 7(5): 251-257.

Knezevic, P., V. Aleksic, N. Simin, E. Svircev, A. Petrovic and N. J. J. Mimica-Dukic, 2016. Antimicrobial activity of eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oils and their interactions with conventional antimicrobial agents against multi-drug resistant acinetobacter baumannii. 178: 125-136.

Kruthi, B. S., K. Srikari, P. SaiPriya, G. S. Ch Jyothi and R. Publication, 2014. In vitro testing of antimicrobial properties of lemongrass, eucalyptus and their synergistic effect. 4(2): 1-8.

Kumar, G. A., R. Muhury and D. Ganjewala, 2016. A study on antimicrobial activities of essential oils of different cultivars of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus).

Lokhande, P., K. Gawai, K. Kodam, B. Kuchekar, A. Chabukswar and S. P. Jagdale, 2007. Antibacterial activity of isolated constituents and extract of roots of inula racemosa. 1(1): 7-12.

Mathur, S. and M. Gutte, 2013. Study the effect of essential oils on microbial biofilm formation by klebsiella pneumonia.

Mith, H., R. Dure, V. Delcenserie, A. Zhiri, G. Daube, A. J. Clinquart and nutrition, 2014. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food‐borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria. 2(4): 403-416.

Mohamed, G. A. and S. R. J. A. Ibrahim, 2007. Eucalyptone g, a new phloroglucinol derivative and other constituents from eucalyptus globulus labill. 15: 281-291.

Moosavy, M.-H. and N. J. P. s. Shavisi, 2013. Determination of

antimicrobial effects of nisin and mentha spicata essential oil against escherichia coli o157: H7 under various conditions (pH, temperature and Nacl concentration). 19(2): 61-67.

Morais-Braga, M. F. B., D. L. Sales, F. dos Santos Silva, T. P. Chaves, V. d. C. N. Bitu, W. M. T. Avilez, J. Ribeiro-Filho and H. D. M. Coutinho, 2016. Psidium guajava l. And psidium brownianum mart ex dc. Potentiate the effect of antibiotics against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. 8(5): 683-687.

Mota, V. d. S., R. N. T. Turrini and V. Poveda, 2015. Antimicrobial activity of eucalyptus globulus oil, xylitol and papain: A pilot study. 49(2): 0216-0220.

Mulyaningsih, S., F. Sporer, J. Reichling and M. Wink, 2011. Antibacterial activity of essential oils from eucalyptus and of selected components against multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens. 49(9): 893-899.

Naik, M. I., B. A. Fomda, E. Jaykumar and J. M. Bhat, 2010. Antibacterial activity of lemongrass (cymbopogon citratus) oil against some selected pathogenic bacterias. 3(7): 535-538.

Oloyede, O., 2009. Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of cymbopogon citratus leaves. 2: 98-103.

Ostad Asiaei, E., E. Moghimipour and M.. Fakoor, 2018. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oil against the growth of drug-resistant bacteria. 13(4).

Oussalah, M., S. Caillet and M.. Lacroix, 2006. Mechanism of action of spanish oregano, chinese cinnamon, and savory essential oils against cell membranes and walls of escherichia coli o157: H7 and listeria monocytogenes. 69(5): 1046-1055.

Preethi, R., V. V. Devanathan and M. J. Loganathan, 2010. Antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy of some medicinal plants against food borne pathogens. 4(2): 122-125.

Premathilake, U., D. Wathugala and R.. Dharmadasa, Med. Aromatic Plants, 2018. Evaluation of chemical composition and assessment of antimicrobial activities of essential oil of lemongrass (cymbopogon citratus (dc.) stapf). 4: 13-19.

Rasooli, I., S. Shayegh and S.. Astaneh, 2009. The effect of mentha spicata and eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oils on dental biofilm. 7(3): 196-203.

Rauber, C. d. S., S. S. Guterres, E.. Schapoval and B. Analysis, 2005. Lc determination of citral in cymbopogon citratus volatile oil. 37(3): 597-601.

Reda, F. M., Y. El-Zawahry, A. S. Omar and Biotechnology, 2017. Synergistic effect of combined antibiotic and methanol extract of eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf against staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa. 5(4): 486-497.

Reis‐Teixeira, F. B., I. P. Sousa, V. F. Alves, N.. Furtado and E. C. P. J. De Martinis, 2019. Evaluation of lemongrass and ginger essential oils to inhibit listeria monocytogenes in biofilms. 39(4): e12627.

Rodriguez-Tudela, J., F. Barchiesi, J. Bille, E. Chryssanthou, M. Cuenca-Estrella, D. Denning, J. Donnelly, B. Dupont, W. Fegeler, C. J. C. M. Moore and Infection, 2003. Method for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) by broth dilution of fermentative yeasts. 9(8): i-viii.

Sambyal, S. S., P. Sharma, D.C. M. Shrivastava and A. Sciences, 2017. Anti-biofilm activity of selected plant essential oils against pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus. 6(3): 444-450.

Santin, M. R., A. O. dos Santos, C. V. Nakamura, B. P. Dias Filho, I. C. P. Ferreira and T. J. Ueda-Nakamura, 2009. In vitro activity of the essential oil of cymbopogon citratus and its major component (citral) on leishmania amazonensis. 105(6): 1489-1496.

Silva, J., W. Abebe, S. Sousa, V. Duarte, M. Machado and F. Matos, 2003. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils of eucalyptus. 89(2-3): 277-283.

Singh, S., S. K. Singh, I. Chowdhury and R. Singh, 2017. Understanding the mechanism of bacterial biofilms resistance to antimicrobial agents. 11: 53.

Thwaites, G. E., J. D. Edgeworth, E. Gkrania-Klotsas, A. Kirby, R. Tilley, M. E. Török, S. Walker, H. F. Wertheim, P. Wilson and M. J. Llewelyn, 2011. Clinical management of staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. 11(3): 208-222.

Tyagi, A. K. and A.. Malik, 2011. Antimicrobial potential and chemical composition of eucalyptus globulus oil in liquid and vapour phase against food spoilage microorganisms. 126(1): 228-235.

Vadlapudi, V. and K. C. Naidu, 2009. In vitro bioefficiency of marine mangrove plant activity of rhizophora conjugata. 1: 1598-1600.

Watnick, P. and R. J. Kolter, 2000. Biofilm, city of microbes. 182(10): 2675-2679.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Iram Liaqat, Amna Asgar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Print ISSN: 2522-6746 : Online ISSN: 2522-6754
1. How to register 
2. How to reset password
2. How to prepare a manuscript before submission 
3. How to submit a paper 
4. How to check the review status of a paper
5. How to check the plagirisim or similarity report