Antifungal and antioxidant properties of chloroform soluble compounds of fennel seeds

Naureen Akhtar, Amna Shoaib, Sobia Ashraf


Bio-pesticides are replacing chemicals being their potential alternatives. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antifungal effect of chloroform soluble fractions of Foeniculum vulgare seeds against seed rotting Aspergilli; Aspergillus flavus, A. welwitschia, A. minisclerotigenes and A. oryzae. Effect was determined in term of inhibition in fungal biomass production, total content of cellular proteins and enzymatic rate of catalase and peroxidase. Maximum growth inhibition was recorded for A. flavus where extract of F. vulgare reduced 97.29 % fungal dry weight without significantly affecting the total cell protein content as well as the catalase and peroxidase enzymatic activities. Seed extract caused 92% inhibition in the mycelial growth of A. minisclerotigenes over the control treatment, reduced the cell protein content to 1.25 from 1.57 mg/g FW. However catalytic and peroxidase activities increased about three and two times, respectively. Under the stress by seed extract, A. welwitschia mycelial weight suppression was almost 72%, total protein content increased to two folds and catalase and peroxidase activities decreased significantly. Effect of chloroform seed extract of F. vulgare was found to be insignificant on growth and selected physiological attributes of A. oryzae.

Full Text:



Amodu, U.S. and B.O. Aku, 2015. Seed-borne diseases and Nigeria agriculture. Scholars Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, 2: 243-252.

Aslam, A., F. Naz, M. Arshad, R. Qureshi and C.A. Rauf, 2010. In vitro antifungal activity of selected medicinal plant diffusates against Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42: 2911-2919.

Bertout, S., F. Renaud, R. Barton, F. Symoens, J. Burod, M.A. Piens, B. Lebeau, M.A. Viviani, F. Chapuis, J.M. Bastide, R. Grillot and M. Mallie, 2001. Genetic polymorphism of Aspergillus fumigatus in clinical samples from patients with invasive aspergillosis: investigation using multiple typing method. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39: 1731-1737.

Caverzan, A., G. Passaia, S.B. Rosa, C.W. Ribeiro, F. Lazzarotto and M. Margis-Pinheiro, 2012. Plant responses to stresses: Role of ascorbate peroxidase in the antioxidant protection. Genetics and Molecular Biology, 35: 1011-1019.

Dhingra, O.D. and J.B. Sinclair, 1985. Basic plant pathology methods. CRS Press, Inc. Bcaraton, Florida (USA).

Dua, A.G. and R. Mahajan, 2013. Polyphenols, flavonoids and antimicrobial properties of methanolic extract of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller). European Journal of Experimental Biology, 3: 203-208.

Elwakil, M.A. and K.M. Ghoneem, 2002. An improved method of seed health testing for detecting the lurked seed-borne fungi of fenugreek. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 1: 11-13.

Geiser, D.M., R.A., Samson, J. Varga, A. Rokas and S.M. Witiak, 2008. A review of molecular phylogenetics in Aspergillus, and prospects for a robust genus-wide phylogeny. In: Aspergillus in the Genomic Era, Varga, J., and Samson, R.A., eds. Academic Publishers. Wageningen (Netherlands). 17-32 p.

Gupta, B., A. Sengupta, J. Saha and K. Gupta, 2013. Plant abiotic stress: Omics approach. Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology, 1: e08.

Hussain, N., A. Hussain, M. Ishtiaq, S. Azam and T. Hussain, 2013. Pathogenicity of two seed-borne fungi commonly involved in maize seeds of eight districts of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology, 12: 1363-1370.

Javaid, A. and H.A. Rehman, 2011. Antifungal activity of leaf extracts of some medicinal trees against Macrophomina phaseolina. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 2868-2872.

Kumar, K.B. and P.A. Khan, 1982. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase in excised ragi (Eleusine corocana CN. Pv. 202) levels during senescence. Indian Journal of Experimental Botany, 20: 412-416.

Lowry, O.H., N.J. Rosbrough, A.L. Farr and R.J. Randall, 1951. Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 193: 265-275.

Lubaina, A.S. and A.K. Murugan, 2013. Ultrastructural changes and oxidative stress markers in wild and cultivar Sesamum orientale L. following Alternaria sesami (Kawamura) Mohanty and Behera inoculation. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 51: 670-680.

Machly, A.C. and B. Chance, 1967. Methods of biochemical analysis. In: D. Glick, (ed.), Vol. 1, Inter-Science Publications, Inc., New York (USA).

Mahesh, B. and S. Satish, 2008. Antimicrobial activity of some important medicinal plant against plant and human pathogens. World Journal of Agriculture Science, 4: 839-843.

McCarroll, N.E., A. Protzel, Y. Ioannou, H.F.S. Frank, M.A. Jackson, M.D. Waters and K.L. Dearfield, 2002. A survey of EPA/OPP and open literature on selected pesticide chemicals—III. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of benomyl and carbendazim. Mutation Research, 512: 1-35.

Meyer, V., B. Wu and A.F.J. Ram, 2011. Aspergillus as a multi-purpose cell factory: Current status and perspectives. Biotechnology Letter, 33: 469-476.

Mustapha, Y., D. Med Réda, B. Houria and H. Nacira, 2009. Effects of artea, a systemic fungicide, on the antioxidant system and the respiratory activity of durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) African Journal of Biotechnology, 8: 4128-4130.

Nouri, M.Z., A. Moumeni and S. Komatsu, 2015. Abiotic stresses: Insight into gene regulation and protein expression in photosynthetic pathways of plants. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16: 20392-20416.

Shoaib, A., M. Akhtar, A. Javaid, H. Ali, Z. Nisar and S. Javed, 2021. Antifungal potential of zinc against leaf spot disease in chili pepper caused by Alternaria alternata. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plant, 27: 1361-1376.

Shoaib, A., S. Abbas, Z. Nisar, A. Javaid and S. Javed, 2022. Zinc highly potentiates the plant defense responses against Macrophomina phaseolina in mungbean. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 44(22).

Shrivastava, P. and R. Diwan, 2014. Estimation of protein in internally seed borne fungal isolates of certain oil yielding seeds. Indian Journal of Scientific Research, 4: 104-107.

Upadhyay, R.K. 2015. GC-MS analysis and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Foeniculum vulgare seed essential oil. American Journal of Plant Science, 6: 1058-1068.

Wu, Y. and A. von Tiedemann, 2002 . Impact of fungicides on active oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to ozone. Environmental Pollution. 116: 37–47.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Naureen Akhtar, Amna Shoaib, Sobia Ashraf

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Print ISSN: 2522-6746 : Online ISSN: 2522-6754
1. How to register 
2. How to reset password
2. How to prepare a manuscript before submission 
3. How to submit a paper 
4. How to check the review status of a paper
5. How to check the plagirisim or similarity report