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Zohaib Ul Hassan, Amanmohammad Komaki, Jahanzeb Jafar


This review focuses on virus-plant pathosystems, manipulation paradigms and alterations induced by viruses in their hosts and vectors. After forming a suitable cell environment viruses elude the defense mechanism of cell, having a transformative interaction with hosts and vectors urge the scientists to work on different molecular alterations and manipulations induced by viruses in their hosts and vectors. Different manipulation paradigms are regulated by viruses, that start after acquisition of viruses by corresponding vectors in adaptive manipulation and behavioral manipulation manners, which are generally known as “Host Manipulation Hypothesis” (HMH). Because of these mediated alterations, secondary chemistry of vector’s behavior can be affected. In the same way, plants are also extensively influenced by viruses which cause dramatic fluctuations in; genotype, phenotype, metabolism, systemic and hormones of the plants. The combination of viral proteins and host proteins evidenced efficacious viral infection. After viral infection defense system of plants is activated in the way of Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) that is (1) Rapid/ Extreme resistance (2) Slower host response or (hypersensitive response, HR) also known as programmed death of plant cells. Proteome-level alterations have been reported in phloem sap at the time of virus infection but this phenomenon needs to be investigated. Viruses have also been reported for making alterations in primary phytohormones of plants; Salicylic acid (SA), Abscisic acid (ABA), Jasmonic acid (JA), Ethylene (ET) actively involved in defense mechanism of the plant


Virus-induced manipulation paradigms, host manipulation hypothesis, proteome-level alterations, primary phytohormones

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Copyright (c) 2017 Zohaib Ul Hassan, Amanmohammad Komaki, Jahanzeb Jafar

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Print ISSN: 2522-6746 : Online ISSN: 2522-6754
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